The source of every major river in the country is symbolically represented by a system of springs that is often religiously revered. Springs are natural point sources of groundwater discharge. Although springs emerge onto the surface and may be treated as surface water after they discharge, they are part of a sub-surface system of aquifers that follows hydrogeological principles. Springs have been a vital source of groundwater in all the mountainous regions across the world. Millions of springs form the life-line for people in the Himalayan and sub Himalayan regions, the Eastern and Western Ghats as well as in the smaller mountain ranges across the country. An increased demand in these regions has accompanied a decline in spring discharges, due to various factors, one of which is the change and variability in climate. A ‘springshed’ approach includes a combination of landscape, watershed and aquifer as units of springwater management and holds the potential to focus on groundwater management for the mountain regions that form such an integral component of India’s diverse landscape.


Dhara Vikas Handbook - User Manual for Reviving Himalayan Springs 2nd Edition, November, 2014